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Passover

 
  • The Passover Story.
  • Why Celebrate Passover?
  • 15 steps of the Seder.
  • The Haggadah.
  • Passover 2020 will begin in the evening of Wednesday, April 8 and ends in the evening of Thursday, April 16.

 

Arrival in Egypt

 

Jacob and his children had arrived in Egypt to be close Joseph; he was second in command to King Pharaoh, and with his ingenuity had saved the people of Egypt, and by extension those from neighboring countries, from death by famine. Jacob and his children were settled in the city of Goshen and prospered wonderfully--their numbers grew and grew.

As long as Jacob's son's are alive, the Children of Israel are accorded honor and respect, but after the passing of Joseph, "There arose a new king in Egypt who knew not Joseph"--some commentaries say, chose not to know Joseph--"And he said to his people. 'Behold the Children of Israel are more and mightier than we. Come, let us deal wisely with them; lest they multiply...'"(Exodus 1:8-10).

Enslavement

 

The Egyptians' way of dealing with their "Jewish Problem" is to enslave the Jews. They are all forced into backbreaking labor, compelled to build cities of treasure houses for Pharaoh. But still, the Jews continue to multiply, to Pharaoh's eyes, at an ever frightening pace. To put a stop to this, Pharaoh summons the Jewish midwives, Shifra and Puah, and commands them to kill all Jewish newborn males. This, he is certain, will put an end to the propagation of this race. When the midwives defy his order, he commands that they cast all the newborn males into the Nile--his stargazers had predicted that the savior of the Jews would die through water--and Pharaoh hopes his plan will ensure an early death for any potential Jewish leader.

 

Moses' Birth

 

Jocheved, the wife of the Levite Amram, gives birth to a son. Because he is born three months early, she is able to conceal him for that amount of time. When she can no longer hide him, she builds a small water-proof cradle and puts her child on the brink of the Nile. The child's sister, Miriam, hides among the brush to watch the child. 

Pharaoh's daughter comes to bathe in the river when she sees the floating cradle. When she opens it and sees the weeping baby, she realizes that this is a Jewish child, but her compassion is aroused and she resolves to take the baby home. She names him Moses "he who was drawn from the water." 

Miriam approaches the princess and offers to find a wet-nurse for the baby. When Pharaoh's daughter accepts, Miriam brings her Jocheved, whom Pharaoh's daughter hires to nurse and care for the child. When Moses grows older, he is returned to the palace, where Pharaoh's daughter raises him like a son.

 

Moses Is Appointed Leader

 

As a young man, Moses leaves the palace and discovers the hardship of his brethren. He sees an Egyptian beating a Hebrew and kills the Egyptian. The next day he sees two Jews fighting; when he admonishes them, they reveal his deed of the previous day, and Moses is forced to flee to Midian. There he rescues Jethro's daughters, marries one of them--Zipporah--and becomes a shepherd of his father-in-law's flocks.

In the meantime, the plight of the Children of Israel in Egypt worsens, "and their cry rose up to G‑d."

As Moses is shepherding his flock, he comes upon a burning bush, in which G‑d appears to him and instructs him to go to Pharaoh and demand: "Let My people go, so that they may serve Me." Moses objects, citing a speech defect he acquired while in the palace, and so Moses' brother, Aaron, is appointed to serve as his spokesman. In Egypt, Moses and Aaron assemble the elders of Israel to tell them that the time of their redemption has come. The people believe; but Pharaoh refuses to let them go and even intensifies the suffering of Israel. He increases the burden of labor on his Hebrew slaves, commanding their taskmasters to cease bringing the Israelites straw to make the bricks. Now, they must go to the fields to collect the straw themselves, but maintain the same quota of brick production.

Moses can no longer bear the pain of his brethren; he turns to G‑d saying, "Why have You done evil to this people?" G‑d promises that the redemption is close at hand, "Now you shall see what I will do to Pharaoh; for with a strong hand shall he let them go, and with a strong hand shall he drive them out of his land."

G‑d then reveals Himself to Moses. Employing the "four expressions of redemption," He promises to take out the Children of Israel from Egypt, deliver them from their enslavement, redeem them and acquire them as His own chosen people at Mount Sinai; He will then bring them to the Land He promised to the Patriarchs as their eternal heritage.

 

The 10 Plagues

 

Moses and Aaron repeatedly come before Pharaoh to demand in the name of G‑d, "Let My people go, so that they may serve Me in the wilderness." Pharaoh repeatedly refuses. Aaron's staff turns into a snake and swallows the magic sticks of the Egyptian sorcerers.

Pharaoh still refuses to let the Jews go. Moses warns him that G‑d will smite Egypt. Pharaoh remains impervious. G‑d begins to send a series of plagues upon the Egyptians. In the throes of each plague, Pharaoh promises to let the Children of Israel go; but he reneges the moment the affliction is removed.

1) Aaron strikes the Nile, the waters turn to blood;
2) Swarms of frogs overrun the land;
3) Lice infest all men and beasts. Still, Pharaoh remains stubborn;
4) Hordes of wild animals invade the cities,
5) a pestilence kills the domestic animals,
6) painful boils afflict the Egyptians.
7) Fire and ice combine to descend from the skies as a devastating hail. Still, "the heart of Pharaoh was hardened and he would not let the children of Israel go; as G‑d had said to Moses."

The people of Egypt have suffered too much. They beg Pharaoh to let the Jews go. When Moses comes to warn Pharaoh of the eighth plague, Pharaoh says: You say that you want to go serve your G‑d? I'll let the men go, as long as the women and children stay behind. No, says Moses, we must all go, men women and children, cattle and herds. Pharaoh once again refuses.

The next plagues descends upon Egypt. 
8) a swarm of locusts devours all the crops and greenery;
9) a thick, palpable darkness envelops the land.

The Israelites are instructed to bring a "Passover offering" to G‑d: a lamb or kid is to be slaughtered and its blood sprinkled on the doorposts and lintel of every Israelite home, so that G‑d should pass over these homes when He comes to kill the Egyptian firstborn. The roasted meat of the offering is to be eaten that night together with matzah (unleavened bread) and bitter herbs.

Then G‑d brings the tenth plague upon Egypt,
10) all the firstborn of Egypt are killed at the stroke of midnight of the 15th of the month of Nissan.

The Exodus

 

The death of the firstborn finally breaks Pharaoh's resistance and he literally begs the Children of Israel to leave his land. Following G‑d's command, they hastily depart; so hastily that there is no time for their dough to rise, and the only provisions they take along are unleavened. Before they go, they ask their Egyptian neighbors for gold, silver and garments, emerging from Egypt a wealthy nation.

The Children of Israel are commanded to observe the anniversary of the Exodus each year by removing all leaven from their possession for seven days, eating matzah, and telling the story of their redemption to their children.

Soon after allowing the Children of Israel to depart from Egypt, Pharaoh chases after them to force their return, and the Israelites find themselves trapped between Pharaoh's armies and the sea. G‑d tells Moses to raise his staff over the water; the sea splits to allow the Israelites to pass through, and then closes over the pursuing Egyptians. Moses and the Children of Israel sing a song of praise and gratitude to G‑d.

Passover Observances

Passover is divided into two parts:

The first two days and last two days (the latter commemorating the splitting the Read Sea) are full-fledged holidays. Holiday candles are lit at night, and kiddush and sumptuous holiday meals are enjoyed on both nights and days. We don’t go to work, drive, write, or switch on or off electric devices. We are permitted to cook and to carry outdoors.

The middle four days are called Chol Hamoed, semi-festive “intermediate days,” when most forms of work are permitted.

 

No Chametz

 

To commemorate the unleavened bread that the Israelites ate when they left Egypt, we don’t eat—or even retain in our possession—any chametzfrom midday of the day before Passover until the conclusion of the holiday. Chametz means leavened grain—any food or drink that contains even a trace of wheat, barley, rye, oats, spelt or their derivatives, and which wasn’t guarded from leavening or fermentation. This includes bread, cake, cookies, cereal, pasta, and most alcoholic beverages. Moreover, almost any processed food or drink can be assumed to be chametz unless certified otherwise.

Ridding our homes of chametz is an intensive process. It involves a full-out spring-cleaning search-and-destroy mission during the weeks before Passover, and culminates with a ceremonial search for Chametz on the night before Passover, and then a burning of the Chametz, ceremony on the morning before the holiday. Chametz that cannot be disposed of can be sold to a non-Jew (and bought back after the holiday).

 

Matzah

 

Instead of chametz, we eat matzah—flat unleavened bread. It is a mitzvahto partake of matzah on the two Seder nights (see below for more on this), and during the rest of the holiday it is optional.

It is ideal to use handmade shmurah matzah, which has been zealously guarded against moisture from the moment of the harvest. 

 

The Seders

The Seder is a marathon feast that includes reading, drinking wine, telling stories, eating special foods and singing.

It is held after nightfall on the first night of Passover (and the second night if you live outside of Israel), the anniversary of our nation’s miraculous exodus from Egyptian slavery more than 3,000 years ago. 

The Seder is a fifteen-step family-oriented tradition and ritual-packed feast.

The focal points of the Seder are:

  • Eating Matzah
  • Eating bitter herbs—to commemorate the bitter slavery endured by the Israelites.
  • Drinking 4 cups of wine or grape juice—a royal drink to celebrate our newfound freedom.
  • The recitation of the Haggada, a liturgy that describes in detail the story of the Exodus from Egypt. The Haggadah is the fulfillment of the biblical obligation to recount to our children the story of the Exodus on the night of Passover. It begins with a child asking the traditional “Four Questions".

 

A Passover Message

Passover, celebrating the greatest series of miracles ever experienced in history, is a time to reach above nature to the miraculous. But how are miracles achieved? Let’s take our cue from the Matzah. Flat and unflavored, it embodies humility. Through ridding ourselves of inflated egos, we are able to tap into the miraculous well of divine energy we all have within our souls.

 

What’s on the Menu?

 

During the course of the evening you will have:

  • four cups of wine.
  • veggies dipped in saltwater. 
  • flat, dry cracker-like bread called matzah
  • bitter herbs, often horseradish (without additives) and romaine lettuce, dipped into charoset (a paste of nuts, apples, pears and wine). 
  • a festive meal that may contain time-honored favorites, like chicken soup and gefilte fish.

Each item has its place in a 15-step choreographed combination of tastes, sounds, sensations and smells that have been with the Jewish people for millennia. 

 

What Do We Use?

 

  • Ceremonial foods are all arranged on a platter, called a ka’arah or Seder plate. There may be one ka’arah for the entire Seder, or several.
  • The procedure is all laid out in a book called a Haggadah. Although the text is in Hebrew (with a sprinkling of Aramaic), it is perfectly acceptable to read the Haggadah in translation if you don’t understand Hebrew. 

 

A Note From the Sages

 

At the Seder, every person should feel as if he or she were going out of Egypt. We begin with the story of our patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, and recount the Jewish people’s descent into Egypt, recalling their suffering and persecution. We are with them as G‑d sends the ten plagues to punish Pharaoh and his nation, and follow along as they leave Egypt and cross the Sea of Reeds. We witness the miraculous hand of G‑d as the waters part, allowing the Israelites to pass, then return to inundate the Egyptian legions.

As we eat bitter foods of affliction and poverty, the Exodus becomes a reality—as real as the festive meal and celebratory toasts that follow. 

 

15 steps of the Seder, with a bit of explanation:

 

1. Kadesh—the Benediction

 

The Seder service begins with the recitation of kiddush, proclaiming the holiness of the holiday. This is said while holding a cup of wine, the first of the four cups we will drink (while reclining) throughout the Seder.

 

The Four Cups of Wine

Why four cups? The Torah uses four expressions of freedom or deliverance in connection with our liberation from Egypt. Some link them to the four great merits the children of Israel had in exile: (1) They did not change their Hebrew names; (2) they continued to speak their own language, Hebrew; (3) They remained highly moral; (4) They remained loyal to one another.

Wine is used because it is a symbol of joy and happiness.

 

Why We Recline

When drinking the four cups and eating the matzah, we lean on our left side to accentuate the fact that we are free people. In ancient times only free people had the luxury of reclining while eating.

 

2. Urchatz—Washing

 

We wash our hands in the usual, ritually prescribed manner, as is done before a meal, but without the customary blessing.

The next step in the Seder, Karpas, requires dipping food into water. Jewish law specifies that certain wet foods be eaten with a utensil or that one’s hands be purified first by washing. On the eve of the Seder, we choose the less common (but more ideal) observance to arouse our children’s curiosity.

 

3. Karpas—the “Appetizer”

 

A small piece of vegetable (an onion or boiled potato in Chabad tradition) is dipped into salt water and eaten (after reciting the blessing over vegetables).

Dipping the karpas in salt water (after having washed our hands) is part of a series of acts intended arouses the child’s curiosity.

The Hebrew word karpas (parsley), when read backwards, alludes to the backbreaking labor performed by the 600,000 Jews in Egypt. (The last letter, samech, has the numerical equivalent of 60, representing 60 times 10,000, while the remaining three Hebrew letters spell perech, “hard work.”).

 

4. Yachatz—Breaking the Matzah

 

The middle matzah on the Seder plate is broken in two. The smaller part of the middle matzah is returned to the Seder plate. This broken middle matzah, the “bread of poverty,” remains visible as we tell the story of Exodus (see step 5) and will be eaten shortly thereafter. The larger piece is put aside for later use as the afikoman (see step 12). This unusual action of breaking the matzah not only attracts the child’s attention once again, but also recalls G‑d’s splitting of the Sea of Reeds to allow the children of Israel to cross on dry land. 

 

5. Maggid—the Haggadah

 

At this point, the poor are invited to join the Seder. The Seder tray is moved aside, a second cup of wine is poured, and the child, who by now is bursting with curiosity, asks the time-honored question: 

Mah nishtanah ha-lailah hazeh mikol ha-leilot? Why is this night different from all other nights?” Why only matzah? Why the dipping? Why the bitter herbs? Why are we relaxing and reclining as if we were kings?

The child’s questioning triggers one of the most significant elements of Passover, which is the highlight of the Seder ceremony: reading the Haggadah, which tells the story of the Exodus from Egypt. The answer includes a brief review of history, a brief narrative of how how Abraham rejected idolatry and entered a pact with G‑d, a description of the suffering imposed upon the Israelites, a listing of the plagues visited on the Egyptians, and an enumeration of the miracles performed by the Almighty to redeem His people. We conclude by thanking G‑d for the having set us free from Egypt and a prayer for the Final Redemption.

 

6. Rachtzah—Washing Before Meal

 

After concluding the first part of the Haggadah by drinking the second cup of wine (while reclining), the hands are washed again, this time with the customary blessings, as is usually done before eating bread.

 

7-8. Motzi—Eat the Matzah

 

Taking hold of the three matzahs (with the broken one between the two whole ones), recite the customary blessing before bread. Then, letting the bottom matzah drop back onto the plate, and holding the top whole matzah with the broken middle one, recite the special blessing “al achilat matzah.” Then break a bit of the upper matzah and at least one ounce from the middle matzah (ideally an ounce from each), and eat the two pieces together while reclining.

 

9. Maror—the Bitter Herbs

 

Take at least one ounce of the bitter herbs. Dip it in the charoset, then shake the latter off and make the blessing “al achilat maror.” Eat without reclining.

 

10. Korech—the Hillel Sandwich

 

In keeping with the practice of Hillel, the great Talmudic sage, a sandwich of matzah and maror is eaten. Break two pieces off the bottom matzah, which should be at least one ounce together. Again, take at least one ounce of bitter herbs and dip them in the charoset, which is shaken off. Place this between the two pieces of matzah, say “kein asah Hillel…,” and eat the sandwich while reclining.

 

11. Shulchan Orech—The Feast

 

The holiday meal is now served. We begin the meal by eating the hard-boiled egg dipped into salt water. Traditionally associated with mourning, the egg reminding us that our meal lacks the sacrificial lamb.

Note: The zeroa (the leg of lamb or chicken leg or neck on the Seder plate), is not eaten at the Seder.

 

12. Tzafun—Out of Hiding

 

After the meal, the half-matzah that had been “hidden” and set aside for the afikoman (“dessert”) is taken out and eaten. It symbolizes the Paschal lamb, which our ancestors ate at the end of their Passover Seders.

Everyone should eat at least 1½ ounces of matzah, reclining, before midnight. After eating the afikoman, we do not eat or drink anything except for the two remaining cups of wine.

 

13. Berach—Blessings After Meal

 

A third cup of wine is filled and Grace After Meals is recited. After the Grace, we recite the blessing over wine and drink the third cup while reclining.

Now we fill the cup of Elijah and our own cups with wine. We open the door and recite the passage inviting the Prophet Elijah, the harbinger of the coming of Moshiach, our righteous Messiah.

 

14. Hallel—Songs of Praise

 

At this point, having recognized the Almighty and His unique guidance of the Jewish people, we go still further and sing His praises as L‑rd of the entire universe.

After reciting the Hallel, we again recite the blessing over wine and drink the fourth cup, reclining.

 

15. Nirtzah—Acceptance

 

Having carried out the Seder service properly, we are sure that it has been well received by the Almighty.

We then say “Leshanah haba’ah b’Yerushalayim—Next year in Jerusalem.”

The Haggadah 

Kadesh - Kiddush

The first cup of wine is poured and the Kiddush is recited.

When the festival occurs on Shabbat, start here:

Prepare the meal of the supernal King. This is the meal of the Holy One, blessed be He, and His Shechinah.
The sixth day. And the heavens and the earth and all their hosts were completed. And on the seventh day G‑d finished His work which He had made, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made. And G‑d blessed the seventh day and made it holy, for on it He rested from all His work which G‑d created to make.

 

When the festival begins on a weekday begin here:

Attention Gentlemen:

Blessed are You, L-rd, our G‑d, King of the universe, who creates the fruit of the vine.

Blessed are You, G‑d, our G‑d, King of the universe, who has chosen us from among all people, and raised us above all tongues, and made us holy through His commandments. And You, G‑d, our G‑d, have given us in love (On Shabbat add the shaded words:) Shabbaths for rest and festivals for happiness, feasts and festive seasons for rejoicing this Shabbat-day and the day of this Feast of Matzot and this Festival of holy convocation, the Season of our Freedom in love, a holy convocation, commemorating the departure from Egypt. For You have chosen us and sanctified us from all the nations, and You have given us as a heritage Your holy Shabbat and Festivals in love and favor, in happiness and joy. Blessed are You, G‑d, who sanctifies the Shabbat and Israel and the festive seasons.

When the festival falls on Saturday night add the following:

Blessed are You, G‑d, our G‑d, King of the universe, who creates the lights of fire.
Blessed are You, G‑d, our G‑d, King of the universe, who makes a distinction between sacred and profane, between light and darkness, between Israel and the nations, between the seventh day and the six work-days. You have made a distinction between the holiness of the Shabbat and the holiness of the festival, and You have sanctified the seventh day above the six work-days. You have set apart and made holy Your people Israel with Your holiness. Blessed are You, G‑d, who makes a distinction between holy and holy.

Blessed are You, G‑d, our G‑d, King of the universe, who has granted us life, sustained us, and enabled us to reach this occasion.

Drink the cup of wine while seated, reclining on the left side as a sign of freedom.

Urchatz - Washing Hands for the Vegetable

Ritually wash hands without reciting the blessing.

Karpas - Vegetable

Take less than a kezayit (the volume of one olive) of the karpas, dip it into salt-water or vinegar, and recite the following blessing:

Blessed are You, L-rd, our G‑d, King of the universe, who creates the fruit of the earth.

When reciting this blessing have in mind that it is also for the bitter herbs (of maror and korech, to be eaten later on).

Yachatz - Breaking the Middle Matzah

Take the middle matzah and break it into two, one piece larger than the other. The larger piece is set aside to serve as afikoman. The smaller piece is put back, between the two matzot.

Maggid - Retelling the Passover Story

Raise the tray with the matzot and say:

This is the bread of affliction that our fathers ate in the land of Egypt. Whoever is hungry, let him come and eat; whoever is in need, let him come and conduct the Seder of Passover. This year [we are] here; next year in the land of Israel. This year [we are] slaves; next year [we will be] free people.

The tray with the matzot is moved aside, and the second cup is poured.(Do not drink it yet).

Now the child asks "Mah Nishtana?"

What makes this night different from all [other] nights?

On all nights we need not dip even once, on this night we do so twice!

On all nights we eat chametz or matzah, and on this night only matzah.

On all nights we eat any kind of vegetables, and on this night maror!

On all nights we eat sitting upright or reclining, and on this night we all recline!

The tray is restored to its place with the matzah partly uncovered. Now we say "We were slaves. . ."

We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt, and the L-rd, our G‑d, took us out from there with a strong hand and with an outstretched arm. If the Holy One, blessed be He, had not taken our fathers out of Egypt, then we, our children and our children's children would have remained enslaved to Pharaoh in Egypt. Even if all of us were wise, all of us understanding, all of us knowing the Torah, we would still be obligated to discuss the exodus from Egypt; and everyone who discusses the exodus from Egypt at length is praiseworthy.

 

It happened that Rabbi Eliezer, Rabbi Yehoshua, Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah, Rabbi Akiva and Rabbi Tarphon were reclining [at a seder] in B'nei Berak. They were discussing the exodus from Egypt all that night, until their students came and told them: "Our Masters! The time has come for reciting the morning Shema!"

Rabbi Eleazar ben Azaryah said: "I am like a man of seventy years old, yet I did not succeed in proving that the exodus from Egypt must be mentioned at night-until Ben Zoma explained it: "It is said, `That you may remember the day you left Egypt all the days of your life;' now `the days of your life' refers to the days, [and the additional word] `all' indicates the inclusion of the nights!"

The sages, however, said: "`The days of your life' refers to the present-day world; and `all' indicates the inclusion of the days of Mashiach."

Blessed is the Omnipresent One, blessed be He! Blessed is He who gave the Torah to His people Israel, blessed be He! The Torah speaks of four children: One is wise, one is wicked, one is simple and one does not know how to ask.

The wise one, what does he say? "What are the testimonies, the statutes and the laws which the L-rd, our G‑d, has commanded you?" You, in turn, shall instruct him in the laws of Passover, [up to] `one is not to eat any dessert after the Passover-lamb.'

The wicked one, what does he say? "What is this service to you?!" He says `to you,' but not to him! By thus excluding himself from the community he has denied that which is fundamental. You, therefore, blunt his teeth and say to him: "It is because of this that the L-rd did for me when I left Egypt"; `for me' - but not for him! If he had been there, he would not have been redeemed!"

The simpleton, what does he say? "What is this?" Thus you shall say to him: "With a strong hand the L-rd took us out of Egypt, from the house of slaves."

As for the one who does not know how to ask, you must initiate him, as it is said: "You shall tell your child on that day, `It is because of this that the L-rd did for me when I left Egypt.'"

One may think that [the discussion of the exodus] must be from the first of the month. The Torah therefore says, `On that day.' `On that day,' however, could mean while it is yet daytime; the Torah therefore says, `It is because of this.' The expression `because of this' can only be said when matzah and maror are placed before you.

In the beginning our fathers served idols; but now the Omnipresent One has brought us close to His service, as it is said: "Joshua said to all the people: Thus said the L-rd, the G‑d of Israel, `Your fathers used to live on the other side of the river - Terach, the father of Abraham and the father of Nachor, and they served other gods.

"And I took your father Abraham from beyond the river, and I led him throughout the whole land of Canaan. I increased his seed and gave him Isaac, and to Isaac I gave Jacob and Esau. To Esau I gave Mount Seir to possess it, and Jacob and his sons went down to Egypt."

Blessed is He who keeps His promise to Israel, blessed be He! For the Holy One, blessed be He, calculated the end [of the bondage], in order to do as He had said to our father Abraham at the "Covenant between the Portions," as it is said: "And He said to Abraham, `You shall know that your seed will be strangers in a land that is not theirs, and they will enslave them and make them suffer, for four hundred years. But I shall also judge the nation whom they shall serve, and after that they will come out with great wealth.'"

According to the instructions of Rabbi Isaac Luria, the wine cup is now raised and the Matzot are covered.

This is what has stood by our fathers and us! For not just one alone has risen against us to destroy us, but in every generation they rise against us to destroy us; and the Holy One, blessed be He, saves us from their hand!

Put down the wine cup and uncover the Matzah.

Go forth and learn what Laban the Aramean wanted to do to our father Jacob. Pharaoh had issued a decree against the male children only, but Laban wanted to uproot everyone - as it is said: "The Aramean wished to destroy my father; and he went down to Egypt and sojourned there, few in number; and he became there a nation - great and mighty and numerous."

"And he went down to Egypt" forced by Divine decree. "And he sojourned there" - this teaches that our father Jacob did not go down to Egypt to settle, but only to live there temporarily. Thus it is said, "They said to Pharaoh, We have come to sojourn in the land, for there is no pasture for your servants' flocks because the hunger is severe in the land of Canaan; and now, please, let your servants dwell in the land of Goshen."

"Few in number" as it is said: "Your fathers went down to Egypt with seventy persons, and now, the L-rd, your G‑d, has made you as numerous as the stars of heaven."

"And he became there a nation" this teaches that Israel was distinctive there.

"Great, mighty," as it is said: "And the children of Israel were fruitful and increased abundantly, and multiplied and became very, very mighty, and the land became filled with them."

"And numerous," as it is said: "I passed over you and saw you wallowing in your bloods, and I said to you `By your blood you shall live,' and I said to you `By your blood you shall live!' I caused you to thrive like the plants of the field, and you increased and grew and became very beautiful your bosom fashioned and your hair grown long, but you were naked and bare."

 

"The Egyptians treated us badly and they made us suffer, and they put hard work upon us."

"The Egyptians treated us badly," as it is said: Come, let us act cunningly with [the people] lest they multiply and, if there should be a war against us, they will join our enemies, fight against us and leave the land."

"And they made us suffer," as it is said: "They set taskmasters over [the people of Israel] to make them suffer with their burdens, and they built storage cities for Pharaoh, Pitom and Ramses."

"And they put hard work upon us," as it is said: "The Egyptians made the children of Israel work with rigor. And they made their lives bitter with hard work, with mortar and with bricks and all manner of service in the field, all their work which they made them work with rigor." And we cried out to the L-rd, the G‑d of our fathers, and the L-rd heard our voice and saw our suffering, our labor and our oppression.

"And we cried out to the L-rd, the G‑d of our fathers," as it is said: "During that long period, the king of Egypt died; and the children of Israel groaned because of the servitude, and they cried out. And their cry for help from their servitude rose up to G‑d."

"And the L-rd heard our voice" as it said: "And G‑d heard their groaning, and G‑d remembered His covenant with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob."

"And he saw our suffering," this refers to the separation of husband and wife, as it is said: "G‑d saw the children of Israel and G‑d took note."

"Our labor," this refers to the "children," as it is said: "Every boy that is born, you shall throw into the river and every girl you shall keep alive."

"And our oppression," this refers to the pressure, as it is said: "I have seen the oppression with which the Egyptians oppress them."

"The L-rd took as out of Egyptwith a strong hand and an outstretched arm, and with a great manifestation, and with signs and wonders."

"The L-rd took us out of Egypt," not through an angel, not through a seraph and not through a messenger. The Holy One, blessed be He, did it in His glory by Himself!

Thus it is said: "In that night I will pass through the land of Egypt, and I will smite every first-born in the land of Egypt, from man to beast, and I will carry out judgments against all the gods of Egypt, I the L-rd."

"I will pass through the land of Egypt," I and not an angel;

"And I will smite every first-born in the land of Egypt," I and not a seraph;

"And I will carry out judgments against all the gods of Egypt," I and not a messenger;

"I- the L-rd," it is I, and none other!

"With a strong hand," this refers to the dever (pestilence) as it is said: "Behold, the hand of the L-rd will be upon your livestock in the field, upon the horses, the donkeys, the camels, the herds and the flocks, a very severe pestilence."

"And with an outstretched arm," this refers to the sword, as it is said: "His sword was drawn, in his hand, stretched out over Jerusalem."

"And with a great manifestation," this refers to the revelation of the Shechinah (Divine Presence), as it is said: "Has any G‑d ever tried to take for himself a nation from the midst of another nation, with trials, signs and wonders, with war and with a strong hand and an outstretched arm, and with great manifestations, like all that the L-rd your G‑d, did for you in Egypt before your eyes!"

"And with signs," this refers to the staff, as it is said: "Take into your hand this staff with which you shall perform the signs."

"And wonders," this refers to the blood, as it is said: "And I shall show wonders in heaven and on earth.

When saying the following words "blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke," spill three times from the wine in the cup. Do not remove wine by dipping a finger, but by spilling from the cup itself, and do so into a broken/chipped dish. (Have in mind that the cup symbolizes the aspect of malchut which contains an aspect of "anger and indignation." By means of our faculty of binah (understanding) we pour out [that aspect of "anger and indignation" - by spilling from the wine in the cup into a broken dish which represents kelipah, i.e., that which is called accursed [the principle of evil]).

Blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke

Another explanation: "Strong hand" indicates two [plagues]; "Outstretched arm," another two; "Great manifestation," another two; "Signs," another two; and "Wonders," another two.

These are the Ten Plagues which the Holy One, blessed be He, brought upon the Egyptians, namely as follows:

When saying the ten plagues, spill from the cup itself ten times, as stated above (and when spilling, again have in mind what was said above). The wine remaining in the cup (will have become 'wine that causes joy,' thus) is not to be spilled, but other wine is added to it [to refill the cup].

Blood.
Frogs.
Lice.
Wild Beasts.
Pestilence.
Boils.
Hail.
Locust.
Darkness.
Slaying of the First-born.

Rabbi Yehudah referred to them by acronyms:

DeTzaCh (blood, frogs, lice);
ADaSh (beasts, pestilence, boils);
BeAChaV (hail, locust, darkness, first-born).

Rabbi Yosi the Gallilean said: How do you know that the Egyptians were stricken by ten plagues in Egypt, and then were struck by fifty plagues at the sea?

In Egypt it says of them, "The magicians said to Pharaoh `This is the finger of G‑d.' At the sea it says, "Israel saw the great hand that the L-rd laid against Egypt; and the people feared the L-rd, and they believed in the L-rd and in His servant Moses."

Now, how often were they smitten by `the finger'? Ten plagues!

Thus you must conclude that in Egypt they were smitten by ten plagues, at the sea they were smitten by fifty plagues!

Rabbi Eliezer said: How do we know that each individual plague which the Holy One, blessed be He, brought upon the Egyptians in Egypt consisted of four plagues?

For it is said: "He sent against them His fierce anger, fury, and indignation, and trouble, a discharge of messengers of evil": `Fury,' is one; `Indignation,' makes two; `Trouble,' makes three; `Discharge of messengers of evil,' makes four.

Thus you must now say that in Egypt they were struck by forty plagues, and at the sea they were stricken by two hundred plagues.

Rabbi Akiva said: How do we know that each individual plague which the Holy One, blessed be He, brought upon the Egyptians in Egypt consisted of five plagues?

For it is said: "He sent against them his fierce anger, fury, and indignation, and trouble, a discharge of messengers of evil": "His fierce anger," is one; "fury," makes two; "indignation," makes three; "trouble," makes four; "discharge of messengers of evil," makes five. Thus you must now say that in Egypt they were struck by fifty plagues, and at the sea they were stricken by two hundred and fifty plagues.

How many levels of favors has the Omnipresent One bestowed upon us:

If He had brought us out from Egypt, and had not carried out judgments against them Dayenu, it would have sufficed us!

If He had carried out judgments against them, and not against their idols Dayenu, it would have sufficed us!

If He had destroyed their idols, and had not smitten their first-born Dayenu, it would have sufficed us!

If He had smitten their first-born, and had not given us their wealth Dayenu, it would have sufficed us!

If He had given us their wealth, and had not split the sea for us Dayenu, it would have sufficed us!

If He had split the sea for us, and had not taken us through it on dry land Dayenu, it would have sufficed us!

If He had taken us through the sea on dry land, and had not drowned our oppressors in it Dayenu, it would have sufficed us!

If He had drowned our oppressors in it, and had not supplied our needs in the desert for forty years Dayenu, it would have sufficed us!

If He had supplied our needs in the desert for forty years,and had not fed us the manna Dayenu, it would have sufficed us!

If He had fed us the manna, and had not given us the Shabbat Dayenu, it would have sufficed us!

If He had given us the Shabbat, and had not brought us before Mount Sinai Dayenu, it would have sufficed us!

If He had brought us before Mount Sinai, and had not given us the Torah Dayenu, it would have sufficed us!

If He had given us the Torah, and had not brought us into the land of Israel Dayenu, it would have sufficed us!

If He had brought us into the land of Israel, and had not built for us the Beit Habechirah (Chosen House; the Beit Hamikdash) Dayenu, it would have sufficed us!

Thus how much more so should we be grateful to the Omnipresent One for the doubled and redoubled goodness that He has bestowed upon us; for He has brought us out of Egypt, and carried out judgments against them, and against their idols, and smote their first-born, and gave us their wealth, and split the sea for us, and took us through it on dry land, and drowned our oppressors in it, and supplied our needs in the desert for forty years, and fed us the manna, and gave us the Shabbat, and brought us before Mount Sinai, and gave us the Torah, and brought us into the land of Israel and built for us the Beit Habechirah to atone for all our sins.

Rabban Gamliel used to say: Whoever does not discuss the following three things on Passover has not fulfilled his duty, namely:

Passover (the Passover-sacrifice),
Matzah (the unleavened bread)
and
Maror (the bitter herbs).

Passover - the Passover-lamb that our fathers ate during the time of the Beit Hamikdash - for what reason [did they do so]?

Because the Omnipresent passed over our fathers' houses in Egypt, as it is said:

"You shall say, It is a Passover-offering to the L-rd, because He passed over the houses of the children of Israel in Egypt when He struck the Egyptians with a plague, and He saved our houses. And the people bowed and prostrated themselves."

Take the broken Matzah into your hand and say:

This Matzah that we eat for what reason? Because the dough of our fathers did not have time to become leavened before the King of the kings of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He, revealed Himself to them and redeemed them.

Thus it is said: "They baked Matzah-cakes from the dough that they had brought out of Egypt, because it was not leavened; for they had been driven out of Egypt and could not delay, and they had also not prepared any [other] provisions."

Take the maror into your hand and say:

This maror that we eat for what reason? Because the Egyptians embittered our fathers' lives in Egypt, as it is said:

"They made their lives bitter with hard service, with mortar and with bricks, and with all manner of service in the field; all their service which they made them serve with rigor."

In every generation a person is obligated to regard himself as if he had come out of Egypt, as it is said: "You shall tell your child on that day, it is because of this that the L-rd did for me when I left Egypt."

The Holy One, blessed be He, redeemed not only our fathers from Egypt, but He redeemed also us with them, as it is said: "It was us that He brought out from there, so that He might bring us to give us the land that He swore to our fathers."

Cover the Matzah and raise the cup. The cup is to be held in the hand until the completion of the blessing, "Who Has Redeemed Us..."

Thus it is our duty to thank, to laud, to praise, to glorify, to exalt, to adore, to bless, to elevate and to honor the One who did all these miracles for our fathers and for us. He took us from slavery to freedom, from sorrow to joy, and from mourning to festivity, and from deep darkness to great light and from bondage to redemption. Let us therefore recite before Him Halleluyah, Praise G‑d!

Halleluyah - Praise G‑d! Offer praise, you servants of the L-rd; praise the Name of the L-rd. May the L-rd's Name be blessed from now and to all eternity. From the rising of the sun to its setting, the L-rd's Name is praised. The L-rd is high above all nations, His glory is over the heavens. Who is like the L-rd, our G‑d, who dwells on high yet looks down so low upon heaven and earth! He raises the poor from the dust, He lifts the needy from the dunghill, to seat them with nobles, with the nobles of His people. He restores the barren woman to the house, into a joyful mother of children. Halleluyah - praise G‑d.

When Israel went out of Egypt, the House of Jacob from a people of a foreign language, Judah became His holy one, Israel His dominion. The sea saw and fled, the Jordan turned backward. The mountains skipped like rams, the hills like young sheep. What is with you, O sea, that you flee; Jordan, that you turn backward? Mountains, why do you skip like rams; hills, like a pool of water, the flint-stone into a spring of water.

Blessed are You, G‑d, our G‑d, King of the universe, who has redeemed us and redeemed our fathers from Egypt, and enabled us to attain this night to eat matzah and maror. So too, G‑d, our G‑d and G‑d of our fathers, enable us to attain other holidays and festivals that will come to us in peace with happiness in the rebuilding of Your city, and with rejoicing in Your service [in the Bet Hamikdash]. Then we shall eat
(Note: if the festival is on any day except Saturday night say:) of the sacrifices and of the Passover-offerings (If the Seder is on Saturday Night say:) of the Passover-offerings and of the sacrifices
whose blood shall be sprinkled on the wall of Your altar for acceptance; and we shall thank You with a new song for our redemption and for the deliverance of our souls. Blessed are You, G‑d, who redeemed Israel.

Recite the following blessing, and drink the cup in the reclining position:

Blessed are You, L-rd, our G‑d, King of the universe, who creates the fruit of the vine.

Rachtzah

Now the hands are washed with recital of the blessing for washing the hands.

Blessed are You, L-rd, our G‑d, King of the universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us concerning the washing of the hands.

One should not speak until after making the next two blessings and eating the Matzah.

Motzi

Take the Matzot in the order that they are lying on the tray - the broken piece between the two whole Matzot; hold them in your hand and recite the following blessing:

Blessed are You, L-rd, our G‑d, King of the universe, who brings forth bread from the earth.

Matzah

Do not break anything off the Matzot. First put down the third Matza (the bottom one), and recite the following blessing over the broken Matza and the top one.

When reciting the following blessing, have in mind that it refers also to the eating of the "Sandwich" of Korech - which will be made with the third Matza - and also the eating of the Afikoman.

Blessed are You, L-rd, our G‑d, King of the universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us concerning the eating of Matzah.

Now break off a kezayit (the volume of one olive) of the two Matzot held, and eat the 2 pieces together in reclining position.

Maror

Now take a kezayit (the volume of one olive) of the Maror, dip it into the Charoset -- but then shake off the Charoset that stuck to it, so that the bitter taste will not be neutralized. Recite the following blessing:

Blessed are You, L-rd, our G‑d, King of the universe, who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us concerning the eating of Maror.

Now eat the Maror, without reclining.

Korech

Take the third Matzah, and also a kezayit (the volume of one olive) of the Chazeret - which is to be dipped into Charoset. Combine the two [like a sandwich], and say the following:

Thus did Hilel do at the time of the Bet HaMikdash: He would combine Passover -- lamb, Matzah and Maror and eat them together, as it said: "They shall eat it with Matzah and bitter herbs."

Now eat them together -- in the reclining position.

Shulchan Orech

Now eat and drink to your heart's delight. It is permitted to drink wine between the second and third cups.

Tzafun

After the meal, take the Afikoman and divide it among all the members of the household, by giving everyone a kezayit (the volume of one olive).

Take care not to eat or drink (only water allowed, but not recommended) after the Afikoman.

It is to be eaten in the reclining position and this ought to be done before midnight.

Berach

The third cup is poured now, and recite Birkat Hamazon(Blessing after the Meal) over it.

 

A Song of Ascents. When the L-rd will return the exiles of Zion, we will have been like dreamers. Then our mouth will be filled with laughter, and our tongue with joyous song. Then will they say among the nations, "The L-rd has done great things for these." The L-rd has done great things for us, we were joyful. L-rd, return our exiles as streams in the Negev. Those who sow in tears will reap with joyous song. He goes along weeping, carrying the bag of seed; he will surely come [back] with joyous song, carrying his sheaves.

A Psalm by the sons of Korach, a song whose foundation is in the holy mountains. The L-rd loves the gates of Zion more than all the dwelling places of Jacob. Glorious things are spoken of you, O city of G‑d. I will make mention of Rahab and Babylon unto those that know me; behold Philistia and Tyre, as well as Cush, "This one was born there." But of Zion it will be said, "This man and that man was born there," and He, the Most High, will establish it. The L-rd will count the register of the nations, "This one was born there." Selah. Singers and dancers alike [will chant], "All my inner thoughts are of you."

I will bless the L-rd at all times; His praise is always in my mouth. The ultimate conclusion, all having been heard: fear G‑d and observe His commandments, for this is the whole of man. My mouth will utter the praise of the L-rd, and all flesh shall bless His holy Name forever and ever. And we will bless the L-rd from now and forever; Halleluyah praise G‑d.

Before mayim acharonim (washing fingers) the following verse is said:

This is the portion of a wicked man from G‑d, and the heritage assigned to him by G‑d.

After mayim acharonim, the following verse is said:

And he said to me: This is the table that is before the L-rd.

When the Grace after Meal is said with a quorum of three or more males over the age of 13, the leader begins:

Gentlemen, let us say Grace!

The others respond:

May the Name of the L-rd be blessed from now and forever.

The leader [repeats the response and] continues:

With the permission of the masters, teachers and gentlemen, let us bless He of whose bounty we have eaten.

The others respond:

Blessed be He of whose bounty we have eaten.

The leader repeats this response.

Those present who did not partake of the meal respond:

Blessed and praised be His Name always, forever and ever.


If there is a quorum of ten males over the age of 13 then the leader begins:

Gentlemen, let us say Grace!

The others respond:

May the Name of the L-rd be blessed from now and forever.

The leader repeats the response and continues:

With the permission of the masters, teachers and gentlemen, let us bless our G‑d He of whose bounty we have eaten.

The others respond:

Blessed be our G‑d He of whose bounty we have eaten.

The leader repeats this response.

Those present who did not partake of the meal respond:

Blessed be our G‑d and praised be His Name always, forever and ever.

 

All who ate recite the Grace:

Blessed are You, L-rd, our G‑d, King of the universe, who, in His goodness, feeds the whole world with grace, with kindness and with mercy. He gives food to all flesh, for His kindness is everlasting. Through His great goodness to us continuously we d o not lack food, and may we never lack it, for the sake of His great Name. For He is a [benevolent] G‑d who feeds and sustains all, does good to all, and prepares food for all His creatures whom He has created, as it is said: You open Your hand and satisfy the desire of every living thing. Blessed are You L-rd, who provides food for all.

We thank You, L-rd, our G‑d, for having given as a heritage to our fathers a precious, good and spacious land; for having brought us out, L-rd our G‑d, from the land of Egypt and redeemed us from the house of slaves; for Your covenant which You have sealed in our flesh; for Your Torah which You have taught us; for Your statutes which You have made known to us; for the life, favor and kindness which You have graciously bestowed upon us; and for the food we eat with which You constantly feed and sustain us every day, at all times, and at every hour.

For all this, L-rd our G‑d, we thank You and bless You. May Your Name be blessed by the mouth of every living being, constantly and forever. As it is written: When you have eaten and are satiated, you shall bless the L-rd your G‑d, for the good land which He has given you. Blessed are You, L-rd, for the land and for the food.

Have mercy, L-rd our G‑d, upon Israel Your people, upon Jerusalem Your city, upon Zion the abode of Your glory, upon the kingship of the house of David Your anointed, and upon the great and holy House which is called by Your Name. Our G‑d, our Father, Our Shepherd, feed us, sustain us, nourish us and give us comfort; and speedily, L-rd our G‑d, grant us relief from all our afflictions. L-rd, our G‑d, please do not make us dependent upon the gifts of mortal men nor upon their loans, but only upon Your full, open, holy and generous hand, that we may not be shamed or disgraced forever and ever.

On Shabbat add:

May it please You, G‑d, our G‑d, to strengthen us through Your commandments, and through the precept of the Seventh Day, this great and holy Shabbat. For this day is great and holy before You, to refrain from work and to rest thereon with love, in accordance with the commandment of Your will. In Your will, G‑d, our G‑d, bestow upon us tranquility, that there shall be no trouble, sadness or grief on the day of our rest. G‑d, our G‑d, let us see the consolation of Zion Your city, and the rebuilding of Jerusalem Your holy city, for You are the Master of [all] salvations and the Master of [all] consolations.]

Our G‑d and G‑d of our fathers, may there ascend, come and reach, be seen and accepted, heard, recalled and remembered before You, the remembrance and recollection of us, the remembrance of our fathers, the remembrance of Mashiach the son of David Your servant, the remembrance of Jerusalem Your holy city, and the remembrance of all Your people the House of Israel, for deliverance, well-being, grace, kindness, mercy, good life and peace, on this day of the Festival of Matzot, on this Festival of holy convocation. Remember us on this [day], L-rd, our G‑d, for good; recollect us on this [day] for blessing; help us on this [day] for good life. With the promise of deliverance and compassion, spare us and be gracious to us; have mercy upon us and deliver us; for our eyes are directed to You, for You, G‑d, are a gracious and merciful King.

Rebuild Jerusalem the holy city speedily in our days. Blessed are You, L-rd, who in His mercy rebuilds Jerusalem. Amen.

Blessed are You, L-rd, our G‑d, King of the universe, benevolent G‑d, our Father, our King, our Might, our Creator, our Redeemer, our Maker, our Holy One, the Holy One of Jacob, our Shepherd, the Shepherd of Israel, the King who is good and does good to all, each and every day. He has done good for us, He does good for us, and He will do good for us; He has bestowed, He bestows, and He will forever bestow upon us grace, kindness and mercy, relief, salvation and success, blessing and help, consolation, sustenance and nourishment, compassion, life, peace and all goodness; and may He never cause us to lack any good.

May the Merciful One reign over us forever and ever.

May the Merciful One be blessed in heaven and on earth.

May the Merciful One be praised for all generations, and be glorified in us forever and all eternity, and honored in us forever and ever.

May the Merciful One sustain us with honor.

May the Merciful One break the yoke of exile from our neck and may He lead us upright to our land.

May the Merciful One send abundant blessing into this house and upon this table at which we have eaten.

May the Merciful One send us Elijah the Prophet may he be remembered for good and may he bring us good tidings, salvation and consolation.

May the Merciful One bless my father, my teacher, the master of this house, and my mother, my teacher, the mistress of this house; them, their household, their children, and all that is theirs; us, and all that is ours. Just as He blessed our forefathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, "in everything," "from everything," with "everything," so may He bless all of us (the children of the Covenant) together with a perfect blessing, and let us say, Amen.

From On High, may there be invoked upon him and upon us such merit which will bring a safeguarding of peace. May we receive blessing from the L-rd and just kindness from the G‑d of our salvation, and may we find grace and good understanding in the eyes of G‑d and man.

On Shabbat add: May the Merciful One cause us to inherit that day which will be all Shabbat and rest for life everlasting.

May the Merciful One cause us to inherit that day which is all good.

May the Merciful One grant us the privilege of reaching the days of the Mashiach and the life of the World to Come. He is a tower of salvation to His king, and bestows kindness upon His anointed, to David and his descendants forever. He who makes peace in His heights, may He make peace for us and for all Israel; and say, Amen.

Fear the L-rd, you His holy ones, for those who fear Him suffer no want. Young lions are in need and go hungry, but those who seek the L-rd shall not lack any good. Give thanks to the L-rd for He is good, for His kindness is everlasting. You open Your hand and satisfy the desire of every living thing. Blessed is the man who trusts in the L-rd, and the L-rd will be his trust.

Recite the blessing for the wine, and drink in reclining position.

Blessed are You, L-rd, our G‑d, King of the universe, who creates the fruit of the vine.

The fourth cup is poured and the door is opened. Say the following:

Pour out Your wrath upon the nations that do not acknowledge You, and upon the kingdoms that do not call upon Your Name. For they have devoured Jacob and laid waste his habitation.Pour out Your indignation upon them, and let the wrath of Your anger overtake them. Pursue them with anger, and destroy them from beneath the heavens of the L-rd.

Hallel

 

Not to us, L-rd, not to us, but to Your Name give glory, for the sake of Your kindness and Your truth. Why should the nations say, "Where, now, is their G‑d?" Our G‑d is in heaven, whatever He desires, He does. Their idols are of silver and gold, the product of human hands: they have a mouth, but cannot speak; they have eyes, but cannot see; they have ears, but cannot hear; they have a nose, but cannot smell; their hands cannot feel; their feet cannot walk; they can make no sound with their throat. Like them should be their makers, everyone that trusts in them. Israel, trust in the L-rd! He is their help and their shield. House of Aaron, trust in the L-rd! He is their help and their shield. You who fear the L-rd, trust in the L-rd! He is their help and their shield.

The L-rd, mindful of us, will bless. He will bless the House of Israel; He will bless the House of Aaron; He will bless those who fear the L-rd, the small with the great. May the L-rd increase [blessing] upon you, upon you and upon your children. You are blessed unto the L-rd, the Maker of heaven and earth. The heavens are the heavens of the L-rd, but the earth He gave to the children of man. The dead do not praise G‑d, nor do those that go down into the silence [of the grave]. But we will bless G‑d, from now to eternity. Halleluyah Praise G‑d.

I love the L-rd, because He hears my voice, my prayers. For He turned His ear to me; all my days I will call [upon Him]. The pangs of death encompassed me, and the agonies of the grave came upon me, trouble and sorrow I encounter and I call u upon the Name of the L-rd: Please, L-rd, deliver my soul! The L-rd is gracious and just, our G‑d is compassionate. The L-rd watches over the simpletons; I was brought low and He saved me. Return, my soul, to your rest, for the L-rd has dealt kindly with you. For You have delivered my soul from death, my eyes from tears, my foot from stumbling. I will walk before the L-rd in the lands of the living. I had faith even when I said, "I am greatly afflicted;" [even when] I said in my haste, "All men are deceitful."

What can I repay the L-rd for all His kindness to me? I will raise the cup of salvation and call upon the Name of the L-rd. I will pay my vowsto the L-rd in the presence of all His people. Precious in the eyes of the L-rd is the death of His pious ones. I thank you, L-rd, for I am Your servant. I am Your servant the son of Your handmaid, You have loosened my bonds. To You I will bring an offering of thanksgiving, and I will call upon the Name of the L-rd. I will pay my vows to the L-rd in the presence of all His people, in the courtyards of the House of the L-rd, in the midst of Jerusalem. Halleluyah Praise G‑d.

Praise the L-rd, all nations! Extol Him, all peoples! For His kindness was mighty over us, and the truth of the L-rd is everlasting. Halleluyah Praise G‑d.

Give thanks to the L-rd, for He is good, for His kindness is everlasting.

Let Israel say [it], for His kindness is everlasting.

Let the House of Aaron say [it], for His kindness is everlasting.

Let those who fear the L-rd say [it], for His kindness is everlasting.

Out of narrow confines I called to G‑d; G‑d answered me with abounding relief. The L-rd is with me, I will not fear what can man do to me? The L-rd is with me, through my helpers, and I can face my enemies. It is better to rely on the L-rd, than to trust in man. It is better to rely on the L-rd, than to trust in nobles. All nations surround me, but I cut them down in the Name of the L-rd. They surrounded me, they encompassed me, but I cut them down in the Name of the L-rd. They surrounded me like bees, yet they are extinguished like a fire of thorns; I cut them down in the Name of the L-rd. You [my foes] pushed me again and again to fall, but the L-rd helped me. G‑d is my strength and song, and this has been my salvation. The sound of joyous song and salvation is in the tents of the righteous: "The right hand of the L-rd performs deeds of valor. The right hand of the L-rd is exalted; the right hand of the L-rd performs deeds of valor!" I shall not die, but I shall live and relate the deeds of G‑d. G‑d has chastised me, but He did not give me over to death. Open for me the gates of righteousness; I will enter them and give thanks to G‑d. This is the gate of the L-rd, the righteous will enter it.

I thank You for You have answered me, and You have been a help to me.

I thank You for You have answered me, and You have been a help to me.

The stone scorned by the builders has become the main cornerstone.

The stone scorned by the builders has become the main cornerstone.

This was indeed from the L-rd, it is wondrous in our eyes.

This was indeed from the L-rd, it is wondrous in our eyes.

This day the L-rd has made, let us be glad and rejoice on it.

This day the L-rd has made, let us be glad and rejoice on it.

O L-rd, please help us! O L-rd, please help us!

O L-rd, please grant us success! O L-rd, please grant us success!

Blessed is he who comes in the Name of the L-rd; we bless you from the House of the L-rd.

Blessed is he who comes in the Name of the L-rd; we bless you from the House of the L-rd.

The L-rd is Almighty, He gave us light; bind the festival-offering until [you bring it to] the horns of the altar.

The L-rd is Almighty, He gave us light; bind the festival-offering until [you bring it to] the horns of the altar.

You are my G‑d and I will thank You; my G‑d, I will exalt You.

You are my G‑d and I will thank You; my G‑d, I will exalt You.

Give thanks to the L-rd, for He is good, for His kindness is everlasting.

Give thanks to the L-rd, for He is good, for His kindness is everlasting.

L-rd, our G‑d, all Your works shall praise You; Your pious ones, the righteous who do Your will, and all Your people, the House of Israel, with joyous song will thank and bless, laud and glorify, exalt and adore, sanctify and proclaim the sovereignty of Your Name, our King. For it is good to thank You, and befitting to sing to Your Name, for from the beginning to the end of the world You are Almighty G‑d. Give thanks to the L-rd, for He is good for His kindness is everlasting;

Give thanks to the G‑d of gods for His kindness is everlasting;

Give thanks to the L-rd of lords for His kindness is everlasting;

Who alone does great wonders for His kindness is everlasting;

Who made the heavens with understanding for His kindness is everlasting;

Who stretched out the earth above the waters for His kindness is everlasting;

Who made the great lights for His kindness is everlasting;

The sun, to rule by day for His kindness is everlasting;

The moon and stars, to rule by night for His kindness is everlasting;

Who struck Egypt through their first-born for His kindness is everlasting;

And brought Israel out of their midst for His kindness is everlasting;

With a strong hand and with an outstretched arm for His kindness is everlasting;

Who split the Sea of Reeds into sections for His kindness is everlasting;

And led Israel through it for His kindness is everlasting;

And cast Pharaoh and his army into the Sea of Reeds for His kindness is everlasting;

Who led His people through the desert for His kindness is everlasting;

Who struck great kings for His kindness is everlasting;

And slew mighty kings for His kindness is everlasting;

Sichon, king of the Amorites for His kindness is everlasting;

And Og, king of Bashan for His kindness is everlasting;

And gave their land as a heritage for His kindness is everlasting;

A heritage to Israel, His servant for His kindness is everlasting;

Who remembered us in our lowliness for His kindness is everlasting;

And delivered us from our oppressors for His kindness is everlasting;

Who gives food to all flesh for His kindness is everlasting;

Thank the G‑d of heaven for His kindness is everlasting.

The soul of every living being shall bless Your Name, L-rd, our G‑d; and the spirit of all flesh shall always glorify and exalt Your remembrance, our King. From the beginning to the end of the world You are Almighty G‑d; and other than You we have no King, Redeemer and Savior who delivers, rescues, sustains, answers and is merciful in every time of trouble and distress; we have no King but You.

[You are] the G‑d of the first and of the last [generations], G‑d of all creatures, L-rd of all events, who is extolled with manifold praises, who directs His world with kindness and His creatures with compassion. Behold, the L-rd neither slumbers nor sleeps. He arouses the sleepers and awakens the slumberous, gives speech to the mute, releases the bound, supports the falling and raises up those who are bowed.

To You alone we give thanks. Even if our mouths were filled with song as the sea, and our tongues with joyous singing like the multitudes of its waves, and our lips with praise like the expanse of the sky; and our eyes shining like the sun and the moon, and our hands spread out like the eagles of heaven, and our feet swift like deer we would still be unable to thank You L-rd, our G‑d and G‑d of our fathers, and to bless Your Name, for even one of the thousands of millions, and myriads of myriads, of favors, miracles and wonders which You have done for us and for our fathers before us. L-rd, our G‑d.

You have redeemed us from Egypt, You have freed us from the house of bondage, You have fed us in famine and nourished us in plenty; You have saved us from the sword and delivered us from pestilence, and raised us from evil and lasting maladies. Until now Your mercies have helped us, and Your kindnesses have not forsaken us; and do not abandon us, L-rd our G‑d, forever! Therefore, the limbs which You have arranged within us, and the spirit and soul which You have breathed into our nostrils, and the tongue which You have placed in our mouth they all shall thank, bless, praise, glorify, exalt, adore, sanctify and proclaim the sovereignty of Your Name, our King.

For every mouth shall offer thanks to You, every tongue shall swear by You, every eye shall look to You, every knee shall bend to You, all who stand erect shall, l bow down before You, all hearts shall fear You, and every innermost part shall sing praise to Your Name, as it is written: "All my bones will say, L-rd, who is like You; You save the poor from one stronger than he, the poor and the needy from one who would rob him!" Who can be likened to You, who is equal to You, who can be compared to You, the great, mighty, awesome G‑d, G‑d most high, Possessor of heaven and earth! We will laud You, praise You and glorify You, and we will bless Your holy Name e, as it is said: "[A Psalm] by David; bless the L-rd, O my soul, and all that is within me [bless] His holy Name."

You are the Almighty G‑d in the power of Your strength; the Great in the glory of Your Name; the Mighty forever, and the Awesome in Your awesome deeds; the King who sits upon a lofty and exalted throne.

He who dwells for eternity, lofty and holy is His Name. And it is written: "Sing joyously to the L-rd, you righteous; it befits the upright to offer praise." By the mouth of the upright You are exalted; by the lips of the righteous You are blessed ; by the tongue of the pious You are sanctified; and among the holy ones You are praised.

In the assemblies of the myriads of Your people, the House of Israel, Your Name, our King, shall be glorified with song in every generation. For such is the obligation of all creatures before You, L-rd, our G‑d and G‑d of our fathers, to thank, to laud, to praise, to glorify, to exalt, to adore, to bless, to elevate and to honor You, even beyond all the words of songs and praises of David son of Yishai, Your anointed servant.

And therefore may Your Name be praised forever, our King, the great and holy G‑d and King in heaven and on earth. For to You, L-rd, our G‑d and G‑d of our fathers, forever befits song and praise, laud and hymn, strength and dominion, victory, greatness and might, glory, splendor, holiness and sovereignty; blessings and thanksgivings to Your great and holy Name; from the beginning to the end of the world You are Almighty G‑d. Blessed are You, L-rd, Almighty G‑d, King, great and extolled in praises, G‑d of thanksgivings, L-rd of wonders, Creator of all souls, Master of all creatures, who takes pleasure in songs of praise; the only King, the Life of all worlds.

Those who have the custom to recite hymns [after the Seder] should not do so now, between this blessing and the one for the fourth cup. One must recite the blessing for the fourth cup immediately now:

Blessed are You, L-rd, our G‑d, King of the universe, who creates the fruit of the vine.

Drink in reclining position.

Concluding Blessing for the Wine:

Blessed are You, L-rd our G‑d, King of the universe for the vine and the fruit of the vine, for the produce of the field, and for the precious, good and spacious land which You have favored to give as an heritage to our fathers, to eat of its fruit and be satiated by its goodness. Have mercy, L-rd our G‑d, on Israel Your people, on Jerusalem Your city, on Zion the abode of Your glory, on Your altar and on Your Temple. Rebuild Jerusalem, the holy city, speedily in our days, and bring us up into it, and make us rejoice in it, and we will bless You in holiness and purity (On Shabbat add: May it please You to strengthen us on this Shabbat day) and remember us for good on this day of the Festival of Matzot. For You, L-rd, are good and do good to all, and we thank You for the land and for the fruit of the vine. Blessed are You, L-rd, for the land and for the fruit of the vine.

Nirtzah

 

Afterwards say:

NEXT YEAR IN JERUSALEM!

Wed, September 30 2020 12 Tishrei 5781